Identification

Description


Numéro UN : UN1888

Formule moléculaire brute : CHCl3

Principaux synonymes

Noms français :

  • Chloroforme
  • Trichlorométhane

Noms anglais :

  • Chloroform
  • Trichloromethane

Autres noms :

  • Formyl trichloride
  • Methane trichloride
  • Methane, trichloro-
  • Methenyl trichloride
  • Methyl trichloride
Famille chimique
  • Hydrocarbure aliphatique halogéné
Commentaires

Le chloroforme utilisé en industrie est généralement d'une pureté élevée (> 99 %). Il contient habituellement un stabilisant tel l'éthanol, le méthanol ou l'amylène, en faible concentration (0,5 à 1,0 %).

Utilisation et sources d'émission 1 2 3 4 5 6

Globalement, le chloroforme est surtout utilisé (95 % des volumes produits) comme agent de synthèse du chlorodifluorométhane (HCFC-22 ou Freon® 22); ce dernier est employé comme réfrigérant et comme intermédiaire de synthèse des fluoropolymères (Teflon®, etc.)

Dans une faible proportion, le chloroforme est utilisé comme :

  • composant d'extincteurs chimiques
  • solvant ou agent d'extraction industriel
  • agent de purification de produits pharmaceutiques et cosmétiques
  • solvant et réactif de laboratoires d'analyses chimiques.

Le chloroforme a été longtemps utilisé en anesthésie, mais son usage a été délaissé complètement, au profit de produits comportant moins de risques.

Par ailleurs, quelques éléments de la vie quotidienne peuvent être des sources d'exposition au chloroforme à des concentrations traces dont :

  • l'eau potable, si elle provient d'un réseau où le chlore est utilisé pour la désinfection; au Québec, la concentration moyenne de chloroforme dans l'eau potable traitée au chlore se situe aux alentours de 50 µg/l
  • les aliments, qui peuvent en contenir entre 0,23 et 129 µg/kg
  • l'air ambiant (extérieur), qui peut en contenir de 0,12 à 0,23 µg/m³, en moyenne
  • l'air intérieur, où on a mesuré des concentrations moyennes entre 2 et 3 µg/m³.

 

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Autres sources d'information

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