Alcool méthylique

Numéro CAS : 67-56-1

Identification

Description


Numéro UN : UN1230

Formule moléculaire brute : CH4O

Principaux synonymes

Noms français :

  • Alcool de bois
  • Alcool méthylique
  • Carbinol
  • Columbian spirits
  • Esprit de bois
  • Hydroxyde de méthyle
  • Monohydroxyméthane
  • Méthanol

Noms anglais :

  • Methanol
  • Methyl alcohol
  • Methyl hydrate
  • Methyl hydroxide
  • Wood alcohol
Famille chimique
  • Alcool
Utilisation et sources d'émission 1 2 3 4 5 6

L'alcool méthylique a de nombreux usages. Il est surtout utilisé comme solvant :

  • pour des résines, dont les dérivés de cellulose
  • pour différents polymères
  • pour certaines teintures 
  • pour la production de cholestérol, de vitamines, d'hormones et de nombreux autres produits pharmaceutiques.

De même, l'alcool méthylique sert d'ingrédient antigel dans :

  • le liquide lave-glace pour l'hiver
  • les liquides pour radiateurs
  • les liquides de purge des systèmes de freinage à air des véhicules.

Dans l'industrie chimique, il sert de matière première ou d'intermédiaire de synthèse pour de nombreux produits organiques dont :

  • le formaldéhyde
  • l'acide acétique
  • l'éther de méthyle et de butyle tertiaire (MTBE)
  • les esters de méthyle
  • les amines méthylées
  • le chlorométhane.

L'alcool méthylique est aussi un combustible. On le trouve notamment :

  • dans les carburants pour la course automobile
  • comme liquide pour les réchauds utilisés en camping ou pour les fondues.

Comme additif, on le trouve dans :

  • les solutions de formaline, où il sert de stabilisant 
  • l'alcool éthylique, où il sert de dénaturant 
  • le gaz naturel, où il est un agent de déshydratation.

Le chauffage du bois ou de composés de bois à des températures et dans des conditions où il n'y a pas de combustion mais seulement de la décomposition, est une source d'émission d'alcool méthylique. Avant les années 30, c'est d'ailleurs par distillation sèche du bois qu'était produite l'alcool méthylique connu alors sous le nom « alcool de bois ».

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