020-101 REDUCER - Synonyme de Toluène

Numéro CAS : 108-88-3

Identification

Description


Numéro UN : UN1294

Formule moléculaire brute : C7H8

Principaux synonymes

Noms français :

  • Benzène, méthyl-
  • Méthane, phényl-
  • Méthyl-benzène
  • Méthylbenzol
  • Méthylbenzène
  • Phénylméthane
  • Toluène

Noms anglais :

  • Toluene
  • Toluol
Famille chimique
  • Hydrocarbure aromatique
Commentaires

Actuellement, le toluène est généralement obtenu par reformation catalytique des naphtas dont la fraction prépondérante contient des hydrocarbures possédant 6 à 9 carbones. Lors de sa production, il est toujours obtenu simultanément avec du benzène, des xylènes et d'autres hydrocarbures aromatiques possédant 9 carbones. La séparation des constituants du mélange obtenu est effectuée par fractionnement.
Il a été estimé qu'environ 85 à 90 % du toluène brut ainsi produit aux États-Unis n'était pas séparé, mais utilisé tel quel.

  • Le toluène brut peut contenir exceptionnellement jusqu'à 25 % de benzène.
  • Le toluène de qualité commerciale peut aussi contenir de très faibles quantités d'hydrocarbures polycycliques aromatiques (HPA), notamment le pyrène, le fluoranthène et le benzo[ghi]pérylène.
  • Le toluène hautement purifié contient moins de 0,01 % de benzène.

Utilisation et sources d'émission 1 2 3 4

Le toluène est utilisé comme :

  • Solvant pour : peintures, vernis, caoutchouc, cellulose éthylique, polystyrène, alcool polyvinylique, encres d'imprimerie, graisses, cires, résines époxy ou époxydiques et autres résines, etc.
  • Matière première pour la fabrication de nombreux produits chimiques tels : benzène, acide benzoïque, phénol, benzaldéhyde, diisocyanate de toluène (TDI), colorants, explosifs (particulièrement le TNT), produits pharmaceutiques (comme l'aspirine®), adhésifs, détergents, caprolactame (fabrication de fibres), saccharine, agents de saveurs et parfums.

Il se retrouve comme constituant de l'essence et des carburants d'avions à des concentrations allant de 5 à 20 % par volume. Il est aussi présent dans plusieurs naphtas et autres produits pétroliers.

Par ailleurs, les activités de la vie quotidienne peuvent aussi contribuer, en faible proportion toutefois, à la dose absorbée de toluène.

  • l'air intérieur, 8 ppb (inhalation 20 m³/jour, absorption 50 %) représente une dose 300 µg/jour
  • la fumée de cigarettes (une cigarette produit 80-100 µg de toluène), un paquet par jour représente environ 1 000 µg/jour
  • l'eau potable et la nourriture contribue de façon infime : eau potable 0,3-0,5 µg/jour, pas de donnée pour la nourriture

L'exposition à 50 ppm en milieu de travail (10 m³ /jour, absorption 50 %) correspond à 1 000 mg/jour, tandis qu'une exposition à 100 ppm représente 3 750 mg/jour.

Les niveaux de toluène dans l'air extérieur peuvent varier selon l'endroit, ils sont faibles dans les milieux ruraux et de l'ordre de 1,3 - 6,6 ppb dans les milieux urbains.

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