Trichloroéthylène

Numéro CAS : 79-01-6

Identification

Description


Numéro UN : UN1710

Formule moléculaire brute : C2HCl3

Principaux synonymes

Noms français :

  • 1,1-Dichloro-2-chloroethylene
  • 1,1-Dichloro-2-chloroethyne
  • 1,2,2-Trichloroethylene
  • 1-Chloro-2,2-dichloroethylene
  • Acetylene trichloride
  • Trichloro-1,1,1 éthène
  • Trichloro-1,1,2 éthylène
  • Trichloroéthylène
  • Trichloroéthène
  • Trichlorure d'acétylène
  • Trichloréthylène

Noms anglais :

  • 1,1,2-Trichloroethylene
  • Ethinyl trichloride
  • Ethylene trichloride
  • Trichloroethylene
  • Éthène, trichloro-
Famille chimique
  • Hydrocarbure aliphatique halogéné
  • Hydrocarbure aliphatique insaturé
Commentaires 1 2 3 4

Le trichloroéthylène utilisé en industrie est généralement d'une pureté élevée (> 99 %). Selon le type d'utilisation, il contiendra souvent un ou des stabilisants tels des amines, alcools ou époxydes ( ex : thymol, triéthylamine, triméthyloxirane, époxybutane, etc.) en faible concentration (< 1 %).

Utilisation et sources d'émission 1 2 3 4 5

Le trichloroéthylène sert principalement :

  • au dégraissage et nettoyage des pièces métalliques, surtout sous forme de vapeur chaude
  • à la synthèse d'hydrofluorocarbones (tel le réfrigérant HFC 134a)
  • comme détachant pour l'industrie du textile et du vêtement
  • au nettoyage de pièces électroniques
  • comme solvant dans diverses applications telles que la formulation d'adhésifs, lubrifiants, peintures, décapants, vernis, colles, teintures de tissus

Depuis 2003, l'utilisation du trichloroéthylène dans le secteur du dégraissage des métaux est régie par un règlement fédéral de la Loi canadienne sur la protection de l'environnement. Ce règlement vise à diminuer significativement les quantités de trichloroéthylène dispersées dans l'environnement. Ainsi, l'utilisation du trichloroéthylène pour le dégraissage des métaux est régie par un système d'unités de consommation qui en limite l'utilisation, durant la période de 2004 à 2006, et qui prévoit une diminution de 65 % du volume total utilisé à partir de 2007. 

 

Références

  • ▲2.  Bureau européen des substances chimiques, European Union Risk Assessment Report : Trichloroethylene. 1st Priority List, Vol. 31. Luxembourg : European Chemicals Bureau. (2004). EUR 21057 EN.   http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/
    http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/REPORT/trichloroethylenereport018.pdf
  • ▲3.  Canada, Loi canadienne sur la protection de l'environnement (1999) : règlement sur les solvants de dégraissage. Gazette du Canada. Partie II, Vol. 137, p. 2185-2194. Ottawa : Imprimeur de la Reine pour le Canada. (2003). SOR/DORS/2003-283.   http://canadagazette.gc.ca/partII/2003/20030813/html/sor283-f.html
  • ▲5.  IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Vol. 63. Lyon : International Agency for Research on Cancer. (1995). [MO-018423]   http://www.iarc.fr
  • ▲8.  Cairelli, S.G., Ludwig, H.R. et Whalen, J.J., Documentation for immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations (IDLHS). Springfield (VA) : NTIS. (1994). PB-94-195047. [RM-515102]   http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/intridl4.html
  • ▲10.  American Industrial Hygiene Association, Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. Akron, OH : AIHA. (1989). [RM-515061]
  • ▲11.  Handbook of organic industrial solvents. 6ème. Chicago : Alliance of American Insurers. (1987). [RT-435005]
  • ▲13.  Truchon, G., Guide de surveillance biologique : prélèvement et interprétation des résultats. Études et recherches / IRSST, 5ème éd. Montréal : IRSST. (1999). T-03. [MO-008481]   http://www.irsst.qc.ca
  • ▲14.  Bégin, D. et Gérin, M., La substitution des solvants par le d-limonène. Bilans de connaissances / IRSST. Montréal : IRSST. (1999). B-057. [MO-021363]   http://www.irsst.qc.ca
  • ▲19.  American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices / Documentation of TLV's and BEI's. 7th ed. Cincinnati, Ohio : ACGIH. (2001-). Publication #0100Doc. [RM-514008]   http://www.acgih.org
  • ▲20.  Lauwerys, R.R., Toxicologie industrielle et intoxications professionnelles. 4ème éd. Paris : Masson. (1999). [RM-514015]
  • ▲21.  Pastino, G.M., Yap, W.Y. et Carroquino, M., «Human variability and susceptibility to trichloroethylene.» Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 108, no. Suppl. 2, p. 201-214. (2000).
  • ▲22.  National Industrial Chemicals Notification & Assessment Scheme, Trichloroethylene. Priority existing chemical assessment report No. 8. Sydney, Australie : NICNAS. (2000).   http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/CAR/PEC/PEC8/PEC_8_Full_Report_PDF.pdf
    http://www.nicnas.gov.au/
  • ▲23.  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological profile for trichloroethylene. Atlanta, GA : ATSDR. (1997).   http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/index.asp
    http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp19.pdf
  • ▲24.  Beije, B. et Lundberg, P., Criteria documents from the nordic expert group 1991. Arbete och Hälsa 1991:50. Solna, Suède : Arbetslivsinstitutet. (1991). [MO-011650]   https://gupea.ub.gu.se/dspace/handle/2077/3194?locale=en
  • ▲25.  Forkert, P.-G. et al., «Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene in epididymis and testis.» Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 182, no. 3, p. 244-254. (2002).
  • ▲26.  Forkert, P.-G. et al., «Identification of trichloroethylene and its metabolites in human seminal fluid of workers exposed to trichloroethylene.» Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Vol. 31, no. 3, p. 306-311. (2003). [AP-62402]
  • ▲27.  Sato, A. et Nakajima, T., «Differences following skin or inhalation exposure in the absorption and excretion kinetics of trichloroethylene and toluene..» British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 35, p. 43-49. (1978). [AP-123145]
  • ▲28.  Kezic, S. et al., «Dermal absorption of neat liquid solvents on brief exposures in volunteers.» American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 62, p. 12-18. (2001).
  • ▲29.  Monster, A.C., Boersma, G. et Duba, W.C., «Kinetics of trichloroethylene in repeated exposure of volunteers.» International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 42, p. 283-292. (1979). [AP-020572]
  • ▲30.  Grant, W.M. et Schuman, J.S., Toxicology of the eye : effects on the eyes and visual systems from chemicals, drugs, metals and minerals, plants, toxins and venoms; also, systemic side effects from eye medications. Vol. 1, 4th ed. Springfield (ILL.) : Charles C. Thomas. (1993). [RM-515030]
  • ▲31.  Smyth, H.F., Carpenter, C.P. et Weil, C.S., «Range-Finding Toxicity Data : List VII.» American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30, no. 5, p. 470-476. (1969). [AP-000464]
  • ▲32.  Centre d'écologie et de toxicologie de l'industrie chimique européenne, Skin irritation and corrosion : reference chemicals data bank. Technical Report / ECETOC; 66. Bruxelles : ECETOC. (1995). [RM-515105]
  • ▲33.  Lauwerys, R. et al., Toxicologie industrielle et intoxications professionnelles. 5ème éd. Issy-les-Moulineaux Cedex : Elsevier Masson SAS. (2007). [RM-514015]
  • ▲34.  Institut national de l'environnement industriel et des risques (INERIS), Fiche de données toxicologiques et environnementales des substances chimiques.Trichloroéthylène. (2003).   http://www.ineris.fr/ Dans Rapports d'étude, Toxicologie et environnement, Fiche de données
  • ▲35.  Vyskocil, A., Leroux, T. et Truchon, G., Substances chimiques et effets sur l'audition - Revue de la littérature. Études et recherches / Rapport. Montréal : IRSST. (2009). R-604.   www.irsst.qc.ca http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/R-604.pdf
  • ▲36.  Murata, K. et al., «Neuromotor effects of short-term and long-term exposures to trichloroethylene in workers.» American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 53, p. 915-921. (2010).
  • ▲37.  National Industrial Chemicals Notification & Assessment Scheme, Methylene chloride. Priority existing chemical assessment report No. 8. Canberra, Australie : NICNAS. (2004). [MO-010063]   http://www.nicnas.gov.au/publications/car/pec/pecindex.htm
  • ▲38.  Nakayama, H. et al., «Generalized eruption with severe liver dysfunction associated with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.» Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 19, p. 48-51. (1988). [AP-019227]
  • ▲39.  Tang, X.J. et al., «Guinea pig maximization test for trichloroethylene and its metabolites.» Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 15, no. 2, p. 113-118. (2002). [AP-062468]
  • ▲40.  Goh, C.L. et Ng, S.K., «A cutaneous manifestation of trichloroethylene toxicity.» Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 18, no. 1, p. 59-61. (1988).
  • ▲41.  Bond, G.R., «Hepatitis and rash associated with sensitization to trichloroethylene.» Journal of Toxicology : Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 33, no. 5, p. 524. (1995). [AP-062471]
  • ▲42.  Phoon, W.H. et al., «Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.» Contact Dermatits. Vol. 10, p. 270-276. (1984). [AP-004124]
  • ▲43.  Puerschel, W.C. et al., «Trichloroethylene and concomitant contact dermatitis in an art painter.» Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 34, no. 6, p. 430-431. (1996). [AP-062470]
  • ▲44.  Bauer, M. et Rabens, S.F., «Cutaneous manifestations of trichloroethylene toxicity.» Archives of Dermatology. Vol. 110, p. 886-890. (1974). [AP-062469]
  • ▲45.  Conde-Salazar, L. et al., «Subcorneal pustular eruption and erythema from occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.» Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 9, p. 235-237. (1983).
  • ▲46.  Tang, X. et al., «Characterization of liver injury associated with hypersensitive skin reactions induced by trichloroethylene in the guina pig maximization test.» Journal of Occupational Health. Vol. 50, no. 2, p. 114-121. (2008).
  • ▲47.  Bureau européen des substances chimiques, European Union Risk Assessment Report : Trichloroethylene. 1st Priority List, Vol. 31. Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. (2004). EUR 21057 EN.   http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/ Rechercher le CAS et sélectionner "Final RAR -View and save it" dans le bas de la page.
  • ▲48.  Girard, M. et al., «Allergie cutanée au trichloroéthylène chez un malade traité par le carbonate de lithium.» Annales Médico-psychologiques. Vol. 141, no. 2, p. 204-208. (1983). [AP-026823]
  • ▲49.  Schardein, J.L., Chemically induced birth defects. 3ème rév. & expanded. New York : Dekker. (2000). [MO-122294]
  • ▲50.  Sullivan, F.M., Watkins, W.J. et van der Venne, M.Th., Reproductive toxicity. Vol. 1 : Summary reviews of the scientific evidence. Vol. 1. Luxembourg : Commission of the European Communities. (1993). EUR : 14991. [RM-515100]
  • ▲51.  Frazier, L.M. et Hage, M.L., Reproductive hazards of the workplace. New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold. (1998). [MO-020035]
  • ▲52.  Shepard, T.H., Catalog of teratogenic agents. 9th ed. Baltimore : The John Hopkins University Press. (1998). [RM-515003]
  • ▲53.  Hardin, B.D.B. et al., «Testing of selected workplace chemicals for teratogenic potential.» Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. Vol. 7, p. 66-75. (1981). [AP-038909]
  • ▲54.  Taylor, D. H. et al., «Effect of trichloroethylene on the exploratory and locomotor activity of rats exposed during development.» Science of the Total Environment. Vol. 47, p. 415-420. (1985). [AP-016849]
  • ▲55.  Zablotny, C.L., Carney, E.W. et Dugard, P.H., «Evaluation of trichloroethylene in a rat inhalation developmental toxicity study.» Toxicologist. Vol. 66, no. 1-S, p. 237. (2002).
  • ▲56.  Bove, F., Shim, Y. et Zeitz, P., «Drinking water contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes : a review.» Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 110, no. Suppl. 1, p. 61-74. (2002).   http://www.mindfully.org/Water/Water-Adverse-PregnancyFeb02.htm
  • ▲57.  Narotsky, M. G., Schlicht, M. et Berman, E., «Effects of trichloroethylene in an in vivo developmental toxicity screen.» Teratology. Vol. 41, p. 580. (1990). [AP-047301]
  • ▲58.  Dawson, B.V. et al., «Cardiac teratogenesis of halogenated hydrocarbon-contaminated drinking water.» Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Vol. 21, no. 6, p. 1466-1472. (1993).
  • ▲59.  Schwetz, B.A., Leong, B.K.L. et Gehring, P.J., «The effect of maternally inhaled trichloethylene, perchloroethylene, methyl chloroform and methylene chloride on embryonal and fetal development in mice and rats.» Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 32, p. 84-96. (1975). [AP-003536]
  • ▲60.  Taskinen, H. et al., «Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among the wives of men occupationally exposed to organic solvents.» Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. Vol. 15, no. 5, p. 345-352. (1989). [AP-027750]
  • ▲61.  National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trichloroethylene (cas no. 79-01-6) In four strains of rats. (1988). NTP TR-273. [MO-010821], Microfiche : PB88-218896, NIH/88-2529
  • ▲62.  George, J.D., Myers, C.B. et Reel, J.R., Trichloroethylene : Reproduction and fertility assessment in F/344 rats when administered in the feed. NTP. (1986). Microfiche : PB86-190782, NTP-86-085
  • ▲63.  George, J.D., Myers, C.B. et Reed, J.R., Trichloroethylene : Reproduction and fertility assessment in CD-1 mice when administered in the feed. NTP. (1985). Microfiche : PB86-173150, NTP-86-068
  • ▲64.  Taskinen, H. et al., «Laboratory work and pregnancy outcome.» Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 36, no. 3, p. 311-319. (1994). [AP-044090]
  • ▲65.  Withey, J.R. et Karpinski, K., «The fetal distribution of some aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons in the rat after vapor phase exposure.» Biological research in pregnancy and perinatology. Vol. 6, p. 79-88. (1985). [AP-048336]
  • ▲66.  Lorente, C. et al., «Maternal occupational risk factors for oral clefts.» Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. Vol. 26, no. 2, p. 137-145. (2000). [AP-058210]
  • ▲67.  Fischer, J.W. et al., «Trichloroethylene, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid : do they affect fetal rat heart development.» International Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 20, no. 5, p. 57-267. (2001).
  • ▲68.  Lindbohm, M.-L. et al., «Spontaneous abortions among women exposed to organic solvents.» American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 17, no. 4, p. 449-463. (1990).
  • ▲69.  Laham, S., «Studies on placental transfer : trichloroethylene.» Industrial Medicine. Vol. 39, no. 1, p. 46-48. (1970). [AP-005309]
  • ▲70.  Helliwell, P. J. et Hutton, A, M., «Trichloroethylene anaesthesia. 1. Distribution in the foetal and maternal circulation of pregnant sheep and goat.» Anesthesiology. Vol. 88, p. 4-13. (1950). [AP-032746]
  • ▲71.  Dorfmueller, M. A. et al., «Evaluation of teratogenicity and behavioral toxicity with inhalation exposure of maternal rats to trichloroethylene.» Toxicology. Vol. 14, p. 153-166. (1979). [AP-005570]
  • ▲72.  Johnson, P. D., Dawson, B. V. et Goldberg, S. J., «Cardiac teratogenicity of trichloroethylene metabolites.» Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Vol. 32, no. 2, p. 540-545. (1998). [AP-020933]
  • ▲73.  Healy, T.E.J., Poole, T.R. et Hopper, A., «Rat fetal development and maternal exposure to trichloroethylene 100 ppm .» British Journal of Anesthesia. Vol. 54, no. 3, p. 337-341. (1982). [AP-000358]
  • ▲74.  Westergren, I. et al., «Reduction of brain specific gravity in mice prenatally exposed to trichloroethylene.» Toxicology Letters. Vol. 23, p. 223-226. (1984). [AP-009273]
  • ▲75.  Das, R. M. et Scott, J. E., «Trichloroethylene-induced pneumotoxicity in fetal and neonatal mice.» Toxicology Letters. Vol. 73, no. 3, p. 227-239. (1994). [AP-046004]
  • ▲76.  Noland-Gerbec, E. A. et al., «2-deoxyglucose uptake in the developing rat brain upon pre and postnatal exposure to trichloroethylene.» Neurotoxicology. Vol. 7, no. 3, p. 157-164. (1986). [AP-016414]
  • ▲77.  Ghantous, H. et al., «Trichloroacetic acid accumulates in murine amniotic fluid after tri- and tetrachloroethylene inhalation.» Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 58, p. 105-114. (1986). [AP-046750]
  • ▲78.  Windham, G.C. et al., «Exposure to organic solvents and adverse pregnancy outcome.» American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 20, no. 2, p. 241-259. (1991). [AP-034158]
  • ▲79.  Corbett, T. H. et al., «Birth defects among children of nurse-anesthetists.» Anesthesiology. Vol. 41, no. 4, p. 341-344. (1974). [AP-022682]
  • ▲80.  Nelson, J. L. et Zenick, H., «The effect of trichloroethylene on male sexual behavior : possible opioid role.» Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 8, no. 5, p. 441-445. (1986). [ap-014785]
  • ▲81.  Land, P.C., Owen, E.L. et Linde, H.W., «Morphologic changes in mouse spermatozoa after exposure to inhalational anesthetics during early spermatogenesis.» Anesthesiology. Vol. 54, p. 53-56. (1981). [AP-012874]
  • ▲82.  Kumar, A.K. et al., «Trichloroethylene induced testicular toxicity in rats exposed by inhalation.» Human & Experimental Toxicology. Vol. 20, no. 11, p. 585-589. (2001).
  • ▲83.  Manson, J.M. et al., «Effects of oral exposure to trichloroethylene on female reproductive function.» Toxicology. Vol. 32, no. 3, p. 229-242. (1984). [AP-132349]
  • ▲84.  Zenick, H. et al., «Effects of trichloroethylene exposure on male reproductive function in rats.» Toxicology. Vol. 31, p. 237-250. (1984). [AP-048306]
  • ▲85.  Leong, B.K.J., Schwetz, B.A. et Gehring, P.J., «Embryo-and foetotoxicity of inhaled trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylchloroform, and methylene chloride in mice and rats.» Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 33, p. 136. (1975). [AP-020490]
  • ▲86.  Cosby, N.C. et Dukelow, W.R., «Toxicology of maternally ingested trichloroethylene (TCE) on embryonal and fetal development in mice and of TCE metabolites on in vitro fertilizationical.» Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 19, p. 268-274. (1992). [AP-038501]
  • ▲87.  Chia, S.-E. et al., «Semen parameters in workers exposed to trichloroethylene.» Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 10, no. 4, p. 295-299. (1996).
  • ▲88.  Kumar, P., Prasad, A.K. et Dutta, K.K., «Steroidogenic alterations in testes ans dera of rat exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) by inhalation.» Human & Experimental Toxicology. Vol. 19, p. 117-121. (2000).
  • ▲89.  Tola, S., «A cohort study on occupational workers exposed to TCE.» Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 22, no. 11, p. 737-740. (1980).
  • ▲90.  Pellizzari, E.D. et al., «Purgeable organic compounds in mother's milk.» Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 28, p. 322-328. (1982).
  • ▲91.  Shelley, M.L., Andersen, M.E. et Fischer, J.W., «A risk assessment approach for nursing infants exposed to volatile organics through the mother's occupational inhalation exposure.» Applied Industrial Hygiene. Vol. 4, no. 1, p. 21-26. (1989). [AP-024815]
  • ▲92.  Fisher, J. et al., «Lactational transfer of volatile chemicals in breast milk.» American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 58, no. 6, p. 425-431. (1997). [AP-051996]
  • ▲93.  United States Environmental Protection Agency et Office of Water, Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories. Washington. (2004).
  • ▲94.  Report on Carcinogens, 14th edition. Research Triangle Park, NC : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. (2016).   https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html
  • ▲95.  American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Documentation of the biological exposure indices. 7th ed. Cincinnati, Ohio : ACGIH. (2001-). Publication #0100Doc. [RM-514008]   http://www.acgih.org
  • ▲96.  IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and some others chlorinated agents. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Vol. 106. Lyon : International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2014).   http://monographs.iarc.fr/
    http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol106/index.php
  • ▲97.  IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity : an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1-42. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Supplement 7. Lyon : International Agency for Research on Cancer. (1987). [MO-011531]   http://www.iarc.fr ou
    http://monographs.iarc.fr/
  • ▲98.  IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks of Chemical to Humans, Some halogenated hydrocarbons. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk, Vol. 20. Lyon : International Agency for Research on Cancer. (1979). [MO-003342]   http://www.iarc.fr
  • ▲99.  IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks of Chemical to Man, Cadmium, nickel, some epoxides, miscellaneous industrial chemicals and general considerations on volatile anaesthetics. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of chemical to man, Vol. 11. Lyon : International Agency for Research on Cancer. (1976). [MO-023436]   http://www.iarc.fr
  • ▲100.  American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 2017 TLVs® and BEIs® : threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Cincinnati (OH) : ACGIH. (2017). Publication 0114. [NO-003164]   http://www.acgih.org
  • ▲101.  Müller, G., Spassowski, M. et Henschler, D., «Metabolism of trichloroethylene in man. III. Interaction of trichloroethylene and ethanol.» Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 33, p. 173-189. (1975). [AP-062463]
  • ▲102.  Soucek, B. et Vlachova, D., «Excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites in human urine.» British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 17, p. 60-64. (1960).
  • ▲103.  Löf, A. et Johanson, G., «Toxicokinetics of organic solvents : A review of modifying factors.» Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 28, no. 6, p. 571-650. (1998).
  • ▲104.  National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances). Hamilton (Ont) : Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.   http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html
  • ▲105.  Canada. Ministère des transports, Règlement sur le transport des marchandises dangereuses. Ottawa : Éditions du gouvernement du Canada. (2014). [RJ-410222]   http://www.tc.gc.ca/fra/tmd/clair-menu-497.htm
    http://www.tc.gc.ca/tmd/menu.htm
  • ▲106.  Centre canadien d'hygiène et de sécurité au travail, CHEMINFO, Hamilton, Ont. : Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety   http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/cheminfo/search.html

La cote entre [ ] provient de la banque ISST du Centre de documentation de la CSST.